In simple terms, menopause is defined as not having a menstrual period for consecutive 12 months. It is not an illness. Women go through menopause naturally. However, the age at which they reach menopause varies from woman to woman.
Menopause lasts several years and consists of three stages:
perimenopause, menopause, and post menopause.


You may experience some or all of the below symptoms if you are transiting to menopause

  • Hot flashes
  • Night sweats
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Insomnia
  • Mood swings
  • Very heavy or light bleeding during periods
  • Weight gain
  • Hair thinning
  • Lack of sex drive
  • Headaches


  • Ovaries stop producing eggs and releasing them in the fallopian tubes
  • Surgical removal of ovaries
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause ovaries to stop functioning temporarily or permanently
  • Autoimmune disease
  • Turner’s syndrome


Menopause is a natural process. Any abnormality affecting your daily life is probably an indication of menopause. Consult a gynaecologist immediately if you observe any symptoms.

  • Hormone therapy - It relieves menopause symptoms and replaces female hormones like Oestrogen and progesterone, which are at a lower level as you experience menopause.
  • Topical hormone therapy– It combats skin ageing during and after menopause without increasing blood hormone levels.
  • Vaginal oestrogen - Oestrogen vaginal creams, tablets, or rings can be used to treat vaginal dryness. This treatment releases a small amount of ostrogen, reducing dryness and discomfort during intercourse.
  • Osteoporosis medications: – Depending on the individual, several medications are available that reduce bone loss and fracture risk. Your doctor may prescribe vitamin D supplements to strengthen your bones.

Lifestyle tips

  • Include fresh fruits, whole grains, and vegetables in your daily diet
  • Give up smoking
  • Limit your alcohol intake
  • Exercise daily for overall strength and also for the pelvic floor muscles
  • Share your menopause experience amongst your peers
  • Regular visits to the gynaecologist should be on your to-do list